Google could do this. It will raise costs. It will make Google products a bit more expensive, or reduce profits, or both.
If Google were run by grownups who are paying attention, the rebellious employees would be told “no.” This is what Steve Jobs would have done. This is what Larry Ellison would have done. This is even what Bill Gates would have done, at least back in the day. There’s even a way to phrase it diplomatically: “Here’s a ‘climate change’ bonus that you can donate to any Save the Spotted Whales charity you like. Climate change is important enough that we’re foregoing our traditional annual bonus to save the planet.”
But being a grownup means saying “no.” If a child is throwing a temper tantrum, the grownup says “no.”
The problem for Google is that it is not run by grownups.